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wxWindow

wxWindow is the base class for all windows. Any children of the window will be deleted automatically by the destructor before the window itself is deleted.

Please note that we documented a number of handler functions (OnChar(), OnMouse() etc.) in this help text. These must not be called by a user program and are documented only for illustration. On several platforms, only a few of these handlers are actually written (they are not always needed) and if you are uncertain on how to add a certain behaviour to a window class, intercept the respective event as usual and call wxEvent::Skip so that the native platform can implement its native behaviour or just ignore the event if nothing needs to be done.

Derived from

wxEvtHandler
wxObject

Include files

<wx/window.h>

Window styles

The following styles can apply to all windows, although they will not always make sense for a particular window class or on all platforms.

wxSIMPLE_BORDER Displays a thin border around the window. wxBORDER is the old name for this style.
wxDOUBLE_BORDER Displays a double border. Windows only.
wxSUNKEN_BORDER Displays a sunken border.
wxRAISED_BORDER Displays a raised border. GTK only.
wxSTATIC_BORDER Displays a border suitable for a static control. Windows only.
wxTRANSPARENT_WINDOW The window is transparent, that is, it will not receive paint events. Windows only.
wxNO_3D Prevents the children of this window taking on 3D styles, even though the application-wide policy is for 3D controls. Windows only.
wxTAB_TRAVERSAL Use this to enable tab traversal for non-dialog windows.
wxWANTS_CHARS Use this to indicate that the window wants to get all char events - even for keys like TAB or ENTER which are usually used for dialog navigation and which wouldn't be generated without this style
wxNO_FULL_REPAINT_ON_RESIZE Disables repainting the window completely when its size is changed - you will have to repaint the new window area manually if you use this style. Currently only has an effect for Windows.
wxVSCROLL Use this style to enable a vertical scrollbar. (Still used?)
wxHSCROLL Use this style to enable a horizontal scrollbar. (Still used?)
wxCLIP_CHILDREN Use this style to eliminate flicker caused by the background being repainted, then children being painted over them. Windows only.

See also window styles overview.

See also

Event handling overview

Members

wxWindow::wxWindow
wxWindow::~wxWindow
wxWindow::AddChild
wxWindow::CaptureMouse
wxWindow::Center
wxWindow::CenterOnParent
wxWindow::CenterOnScreen
wxWindow::Centre
wxWindow::CentreOnParent
wxWindow::CentreOnScreen
wxWindow::Clear
wxWindow::ClientToScreen
wxWindow::Close
wxWindow::ConvertDialogToPixels
wxWindow::ConvertPixelsToDialog
wxWindow::Destroy
wxWindow::DestroyChildren
wxWindow::DragAcceptFiles
wxWindow::Enable
wxWindow::FindFocus
wxWindow::FindWindow
wxWindow::Fit
wxWindow::GetBackgroundColour
wxWindow::GetBestSize
wxWindow::GetCaret
wxWindow::GetCharHeight
wxWindow::GetCharWidth
wxWindow::GetChildren
wxWindow::GetClientSize
wxWindow::GetConstraints
wxWindow::GetDropTarget
wxWindow::GetEventHandler
wxWindow::GetExtraStyle
wxWindow::GetFont
wxWindow::GetForegroundColour
wxWindow::GetGrandParent
wxWindow::GetHandle
wxWindow::GetId
wxWindow::GetLabel
wxWindow::GetName
wxWindow::GetParent
wxWindow::GetPosition
wxWindow::GetRect
wxWindow::GetScrollThumb
wxWindow::GetScrollPos
wxWindow::GetScrollRange
wxWindow::GetSize
wxWindow::GetTextExtent
wxWindow::GetTitle
wxWindow::GetUpdateRegion
wxWindow::GetValidator
wxWindow::GetWindowStyleFlag
wxWindow::InitDialog
wxWindow::IsEnabled
wxWindow:IsExposed
wxWindow::IsRetained
wxWindow::IsShown
wxWindow::IsTopLevel
wxWindow::Layout
wxWindow::LoadFromResource
wxWindow::Lower
wxWindow::MakeModal
wxWindow::Move
wxWindow::OnActivate
wxWindow::OnChar
wxWindow::OnCharHook
wxWindow::OnCommand
wxWindow::OnClose
wxWindow::OnCloseWindow
wxWindow::OnDropFiles
wxWindow::OnEraseBackground
wxWindow::OnKeyDown
wxWindow::OnKeyUp
wxWindow::OnKillFocus
wxWindow::OnIdle
wxWindow::OnInitDialog
wxWindow::OnMenuCommand
wxWindow::OnMenuHighlight
wxWindow::OnMouseEvent
wxWindow::OnMove
wxWindow::OnPaint
wxWindow::OnScroll
wxWindow::OnSetFocus
wxWindow::OnSize
wxWindow::OnSysColourChanged
wxWindow::PopEventHandler
wxWindow::PopupMenu
wxWindow::PushEventHandler
wxWindow::Raise
wxWindow::Refresh
wxWindow::ReleaseMouse
wxWindow::RemoveChild
wxWindow::Reparent
wxWindow::ScreenToClient
wxWindow::ScrollWindow
wxWindow::SetAcceleratorTable
wxWindow::SetAutoLayout
wxWindow::SetBackgroundColour
wxWindow::SetCaret
wxWindow::SetClientSize
wxWindow::SetCursor
wxWindow::SetConstraints
wxWindow::SetDropTarget
wxWindow::SetEventHandler
wxWindow::SetExtraStyle
wxWindow::SetFocus
wxWindow::SetFont
wxWindow::SetForegroundColour
wxWindow::SetId
wxWindow::SetName
wxWindow::SetPalette
wxWindow::SetScrollbar
wxWindow::SetScrollPos
wxWindow::SetSize
wxWindow::SetSizeHints
wxWindow::SetSizer
wxWindow::SetTitle
wxWindow::SetValidator
wxWindow::SetToolTip
wxWindow::GetToolTip
wxWindow::SetWindowStyle
wxWindow::SetWindowStyleFlag
wxWindow::Show
wxWindow::TransferDataFromWindow
wxWindow::TransferDataToWindow
wxWindow::Validate
wxWindow::WarpPointer


wxWindow::wxWindow

wxWindow()

Default constructor.

wxWindow(wxWindow* parent, wxWindowID id, const wxPoint& pos = wxDefaultPosition, const wxSize& size = wxDefaultSize, long style = 0, const wxString& name = wxPanelNameStr)

Constructs a window, which can be a child of a frame, dialog or any other non-control window.

Parameters

parent

id

pos

size

style

name


wxWindow::~wxWindow

~wxWindow()

Destructor. Deletes all subwindows, then deletes itself. Instead of using the delete operator explicitly, you should normally use wxWindow::Destroy so that wxWindows can delete a window only when it is safe to do so, in idle time.

See also

Window deletion overview, wxWindow::OnCloseWindow, wxWindow::Destroy, wxCloseEvent


wxWindow::AddChild

virtual void AddChild(wxWindow* child)

Adds a child window. This is called automatically by window creation functions so should not be required by the application programmer.

Parameters

child


wxWindow::CaptureMouse

virtual void CaptureMouse()

Directs all mouse input to this window. Call wxWindow::ReleaseMouse to release the capture.

See also

wxWindow::ReleaseMouse


wxWindow::Center

void Center(int direction)

A synonym for Centre.


wxWindow::CenterOnParent

void CenterOnParent(int direction)

A synonym for CentreOnParent.


wxWindow::CenterOnScreen

void CenterOnScreen(int direction)

A synonym for CentreOnScreen.


wxWindow::Centre

void Centre(int direction = wxBOTH)

Centres the window.

Parameters

direction

The flag wxCENTRE_FRAME is obsolete and should not be used any longer (it has no effect).

Remarks

If the window is a top level one (i.e. doesn't have a parent), it will be centered relative to the screen anyhow.

See also

wxWindow::Center


wxWindow::CentreOnParent

void CentreOnParent(int direction = wxBOTH)

Centres the window on its parent. This is a more readable synonym for Centre.

Parameters

direction

Remarks

This methods provides for a way to center top level windows over their parents instead of the entire screen. If there is no parent or if the window is not a top level window, then behaviour is the same as wxWindow::Centre.

See also

wxWindow::CentreOnScreen


wxWindow::CentreOnScreen

void CentreOnScreen(int direction = wxBOTH)

Centres the window on screen. This only works for top level windows - otherwise, the window will still be centered on its parent.

Parameters

direction

See also

wxWindow::CentreOnParent


wxWindow::Clear

void Clear()

Clears the window by filling it with the current background colour. Does not cause an erase background event to be generated.


wxWindow::ClientToScreen

virtual void ClientToScreen(int* x, int* y) const

virtual wxPoint ClientToScreen(const wxPoint& pt) const

Converts to screen coordinates from coordinates relative to this window.

x

y

pt

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::Close

virtual bool Close(bool force = FALSE)

The purpose of this call is to provide a safer way of destroying a window than using the delete operator.

Parameters

force

Remarks

Close calls the close handler for the window, providing an opportunity for the window to choose whether to destroy the window.

The close handler should check whether the window is being deleted forcibly, using wxCloseEvent::GetForce, in which case it should destroy the window using wxWindow::Destroy.

Applies to managed windows (wxFrame and wxDialog classes) only.

Note that calling Close does not guarantee that the window will be destroyed; but it provides a way to simulate a manual close of a window, which may or may not be implemented by destroying the window. The default implementation of wxDialog::OnCloseWindow does not necessarily delete the dialog, since it will simply simulate an wxID_CANCEL event which itself only hides the dialog.

To guarantee that the window will be destroyed, call wxWindow::Destroy instead.

See also

Window deletion overview, wxWindow::OnCloseWindow, wxWindow::Destroy, wxCloseEvent


wxWindow::ConvertDialogToPixels

wxPoint ConvertDialogToPixels(const wxPoint& pt)

wxSize ConvertDialogToPixels(const wxSize& sz)

Converts a point or size from dialog units to pixels.

For the x dimension, the dialog units are multiplied by the average character width and then divided by 4.

For the y dimension, the dialog units are multiplied by the average character height and then divided by 8.

Remarks

Dialog units are used for maintaining a dialog's proportions even if the font changes. Dialogs created using Dialog Editor optionally use dialog units.

You can also use these functions programmatically. A convenience macro is defined:

#define wxDLG_UNIT(parent, pt) parent->ConvertDialogToPixels(pt)

See also

wxWindow::ConvertPixelsToDialog

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:

Additionally, the following helper functions are defined:


wxWindow::ConvertPixelsToDialog

wxPoint ConvertPixelsToDialog(const wxPoint& pt)

wxSize ConvertPixelsToDialog(const wxSize& sz)

Converts a point or size from pixels to dialog units.

For the x dimension, the pixels are multiplied by 4 and then divided by the average character width.

For the y dimension, the pixels are multipled by 8 and then divided by the average character height.

Remarks

Dialog units are used for maintaining a dialog's proportions even if the font changes. Dialogs created using Dialog Editor optionally use dialog units.

See also

wxWindow::ConvertDialogToPixels

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::Destroy

virtual bool Destroy()

Destroys the window safely. Use this function instead of the delete operator, since different window classes can be destroyed differently. Frames and dialogs are not destroyed immediately when this function is called - they are added to a list of windows to be deleted on idle time, when all the window's events have been processed. This prevents problems with events being sent to non-existant windows.

Return value

TRUE if the window has either been successfully deleted, or it has been added to the list of windows pending real deletion.


wxWindow::DestroyChildren

virtual void DestroyChildren()

Destroys all children of a window. Called automatically by the destructor.


wxWindow::DragAcceptFiles

virtual void DragAcceptFiles(bool accept)

Enables or disables elibility for drop file events (OnDropFiles).

Parameters

accept

Remarks

Windows only.

See also

wxWindow::OnDropFiles


wxWindow::Enable

virtual void Enable(bool enable)

Enable or disable the window for user input.

Parameters

enable

See also

wxWindow::IsEnabled


wxWindow::FindFocus

static wxWindow* FindFocus()

Finds the window or control which currently has the keyboard focus.

Remarks

Note that this is a static function, so it can be called without needing a wxWindow pointer.

See also

wxWindow::SetFocus


wxWindow::FindWindow

wxWindow* FindWindow(long id)

Find a child of this window, by identifier.

wxWindow* FindWindow(const wxString& name)

Find a child of this window, by name.

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::Fit

virtual void Fit()

Sizes the window so that it fits around its subwindows. This function won't do anything if there are no subwindows.


wxWindow::GetBackgroundColour

virtual wxColour GetBackgroundColour() const

Returns the background colour of the window.

See also

wxWindow::SetBackgroundColour, wxWindow::SetForegroundColour, wxWindow::GetForegroundColour, wxWindow::OnEraseBackground


wxWindow::GetBestSize

virtual wxSize GetBestSize() const

This functions returns the best acceptable minimal size for the window. For example, for a static control, it will be the minimal size such that the control label is not truncated. For windows containing subwindows (typically wxPanel), the size returned by this function will be the same as the size the window would have had after calling Fit.


wxWindow::GetCaret

wxCaret * GetCaret() const

Returns the caret associated with the window.


wxWindow::GetCharHeight

virtual int GetCharHeight() const

Returns the character height for this window.


wxWindow::GetCharWidth

virtual int GetCharWidth() const

Returns the average character width for this window.


wxWindow::GetChildren

wxList& GetChildren()

Returns a reference to the list of the window's children.


wxWindow::GetClientSize

virtual void GetClientSize(int* width, int* height) const

virtual wxSize GetClientSize() const

This gets the size of the window 'client area' in pixels. The client area is the area which may be drawn on by the programmer, excluding title bar, border etc.

Parameters

width

height

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::GetConstraints

wxLayoutConstraints* GetConstraints() const

Returns a pointer to the window's layout constraints, or NULL if there are none.


wxWindow::GetDropTarget

wxDropTarget* GetDropTarget() const

Returns the associated drop target, which may be NULL.

See also

wxWindow::SetDropTarget, Drag and drop overview


wxWindow::GetEventHandler

wxEvtHandler* GetEventHandler() const

Returns the event handler for this window. By default, the window is its own event handler.

See also

wxWindow::SetEventHandler, wxWindow::PushEventHandler, wxWindow::PopEventHandler, wxEvtHandler::ProcessEvent, wxEvtHandler


wxWindow::GetExtraStyle

long GetExtraStyle() const

Returns the extra style bits for the window.


wxWindow::GetFont

wxFont& GetFont() const

Returns a reference to the font for this window.

See also

wxWindow::SetFont


wxWindow::GetForegroundColour

virtual wxColour GetForegroundColour()

Returns the foreground colour of the window.

Remarks

The interpretation of foreground colour is open to interpretation according to the window class; it may be the text colour or other colour, or it may not be used at all.

See also

wxWindow::SetForegroundColour, wxWindow::SetBackgroundColour, wxWindow::GetBackgroundColour


wxWindow::GetGrandParent

wxWindow* GetGrandParent() const

Returns the grandparent of a window, or NULL if there isn't one.


wxWindow::GetHandle

void* GetHandle() const

Returns the platform-specific handle of the physical window. Cast it to an appropriate handle, such as HWND for Windows, Widget for Motif or GtkWidget for GTK.

wxPython note: This method will return an integer in wxPython.


wxWindow::GetId

int GetId() const

Returns the identifier of the window.

Remarks

Each window has an integer identifier. If the application has not provided one (or the default Id -1) an unique identifier with a negative value will be generated.

See also

wxWindow::SetId, Window identifiers


wxWindow::GetLabel

virtual wxString GetLabel() const

Generic way of getting a label from any window, for identification purposes.

Remarks

The interpretation of this function differs from class to class. For frames and dialogs, the value returned is the title. For buttons or static text controls, it is the button text. This function can be useful for meta-programs (such as testing tools or special-needs access programs) which need to identify windows by name.


wxWindow::GetName

virtual wxString GetName() const

Returns the window's name.

Remarks

This name is not guaranteed to be unique; it is up to the programmer to supply an appropriate name in the window constructor or via wxWindow::SetName.

See also

wxWindow::SetName


wxWindow::GetParent

virtual wxWindow* GetParent() const

Returns the parent of the window, or NULL if there is no parent.


wxWindow::GetPosition

virtual void GetPosition(int* x, int* y) const

wxPoint GetPosition() const

This gets the position of the window in pixels, relative to the parent window or if no parent, relative to the whole display.

Parameters

x

y

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::GetRect

virtual wxRect GetRect() const

Returns the size and position of the window as a wxRect object.


wxWindow::GetScrollThumb

virtual int GetScrollThumb(int orientation)

Returns the built-in scrollbar thumb size.

See also

wxWindow::SetScrollbar


wxWindow::GetScrollPos

virtual int GetScrollPos(int orientation)

Returns the built-in scrollbar position.

See also

See wxWindow::SetScrollbar


wxWindow::GetScrollRange

virtual int GetScrollRange(int orientation)

Returns the built-in scrollbar range.

See also

wxWindow::SetScrollbar


wxWindow::GetSize

virtual void GetSize(int* width, int* height) const

virtual wxSize GetSize() const

This gets the size of the entire window in pixels.

Parameters

width

height

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::GetTextExtent

virtual void GetTextExtent(const wxString& string, int* x, int* y, int* descent = NULL, int* externalLeading = NULL, const wxFont* font = NULL, bool use16 = FALSE) const

Gets the dimensions of the string as it would be drawn on the window with the currently selected font.

Parameters

string

x

y

descent

externalLeading

font

use16

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::GetTitle

virtual wxString GetTitle()

Gets the window's title. Applicable only to frames and dialogs.

See also

wxWindow::SetTitle


wxWindow::GetUpdateRegion

virtual wxRegion GetUpdateRegion() const

Returns the region specifying which parts of the window have been damaged. Should only be called within an OnPaint event handler.

See also

wxRegion, wxRegionIterator, wxWindow::OnPaint


wxWindow::GetValidator

wxValidator* GetValidator() const

Returns a pointer to the current validator for the window, or NULL if there is none.


wxWindow::GetWindowStyleFlag

long GetWindowStyleFlag() const

Gets the window style that was passed to the constructor or Create method. GetWindowStyle() is another name for the same function.


wxWindow::InitDialog

void InitDialog()

Sends an wxWindow::OnInitDialog event, which in turn transfers data to the dialog via validators.

See also

wxWindow::OnInitDialog


wxWindow::IsEnabled

virtual bool IsEnabled() const

Returns TRUE if the window is enabled for input, FALSE otherwise.

See also

wxWindow::Enable


wxWindow:IsExposed

bool IsExposed(int x, int y) const

bool IsExposed(wxPoint &pt) const

bool IsExposed(int x, int y, int w, int h) const

bool IsExposed(wxRect &rect) const

Returns TRUE if the given point or rectange area has been exposed since the last repaint. Call this in an paint event handler to optimize redrawing by only redrawing those areas, which have been exposed.

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::IsRetained

virtual bool IsRetained() const

Returns TRUE if the window is retained, FALSE otherwise.

Remarks

Retained windows are only available on X platforms.


wxWindow::IsShown

virtual bool IsShown() const

Returns TRUE if the window is shown, FALSE if it has been hidden.


wxWindow::IsTopLevel

bool IsTopLevel() const

Returns TRUE if the given window is a top-level one. Currently all frames and dialogs are considered to be top-level windows (even if they have a parent window).


wxWindow::Layout

void Layout()

Invokes the constraint-based layout algorithm or the sizer-based algorithm for this window.

See wxWindow::SetAutoLayout on when this function gets called automatically using auto layout.


wxWindow::LoadFromResource

virtual bool LoadFromResource(wxWindow* parent, const wxString& resourceName, const wxResourceTable* resourceTable = NULL)

Loads a panel or dialog from a resource file.

Parameters

parent

resourceName

resourceTable

Return value

TRUE if the operation succeeded, otherwise FALSE.


wxWindow::Lower

void Lower()

Lowers the window to the bottom of the window hierarchy if it is a managed window (dialog or frame).


wxWindow::MakeModal

virtual void MakeModal(bool flag)

Disables all other windows in the application so that the user can only interact with this window. (This function is not implemented anywhere).

Parameters

flag


wxWindow::Move

void Move(int x, int y)

void Move(const wxPoint& pt)

Moves the window to the given position.

Parameters

x

y

pt

Remarks

Implementations of SetSize can also implicitly implement the wxWindow::Move function, which is defined in the base wxWindow class as the call:

  SetSize(x, y, -1, -1, wxSIZE_USE_EXISTING);
See also

wxWindow::SetSize

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::OnActivate

void OnActivate(wxActivateEvent& event)

Called when a window is activated or deactivated.

Parameters

event

Remarks

If the window is being activated, wxActivateEvent::GetActive returns TRUE, otherwise it returns FALSE (it is being deactivated).

See also

wxActivateEvent, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnChar

void OnChar(wxKeyEvent& event)

Called when the user has pressed a key that is not a modifier (SHIFT, CONTROL or ALT).

Parameters

event

Remarks

This member function is called in response to a keypress. To intercept this event, use the EVT_CHAR macro in an event table definition. Your OnChar handler may call this default function to achieve default keypress functionality.

Note that the ASCII values do not have explicit key codes: they are passed as ASCII values.

Note that not all keypresses can be intercepted this way. If you wish to intercept modifier keypresses, then you will need to use wxWindow::OnKeyDown or wxWindow::OnKeyUp.

Most, but not all, windows allow keypresses to be intercepted.

See also

wxWindow::OnKeyDown, wxWindow::OnKeyUp, wxKeyEvent, wxWindow::OnCharHook, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnCharHook

void OnCharHook(wxKeyEvent& event)

This member is called to allow the window to intercept keyboard events before they are processed by child windows.

Parameters

event

Remarks

This member function is called in response to a keypress, if the window is active. To intercept this event, use the EVT_CHAR_HOOK macro in an event table definition. If you do not process a particular keypress, call wxEvent::Skip to allow default processing.

An example of using this function is in the implementation of escape-character processing for wxDialog, where pressing ESC dismisses the dialog by OnCharHook 'forging' a cancel button press event.

Note that the ASCII values do not have explicit key codes: they are passed as ASCII values.

This function is only relevant to top-level windows (frames and dialogs), and under Windows only. Under GTK the normal EVT_CHAR_ event has the functionality, i.e. you can intercepts it and if you don't call wxEvent::Skip the window won't get the event.

See also

wxKeyEvent, wxWindow::OnCharHook, wxApp::OnCharHook, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnCommand

virtual void OnCommand(wxEvtHandler& object, wxCommandEvent& event)

This virtual member function is called if the control does not handle the command event.

Parameters

object

event

Remarks

This virtual function is provided mainly for backward compatibility. You can also intercept commands from child controls by using an event table, with identifiers or identifier ranges to identify the control(s) in question.

See also

wxCommandEvent, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnClose

virtual bool OnClose()

Called when the user has tried to close a a frame or dialog box using the window manager (X) or system menu (Windows).

Note: This is an obsolete function. It is superceded by the wxWindow::OnCloseWindow event handler.

Return value

If TRUE is returned by OnClose, the window will be deleted by the system, otherwise the attempt will be ignored. Do not delete the window from within this handler, although you may delete other windows.

See also

Window deletion overview, wxWindow::Close, wxWindow::OnCloseWindow, wxCloseEvent


wxWindow::OnCloseWindow

void OnCloseWindow(wxCloseEvent& event)

This is an event handler function called when the user has tried to close a a frame or dialog box using the window manager (X) or system menu (Windows). It is called via the wxWindow::Close function, so that the application can also invoke the handler programmatically.

Use the EVT_CLOSE event table macro to handle close events.

You should check whether the application is forcing the deletion of the window using wxCloseEvent::GetForce. If this is TRUE, destroy the window using wxWindow::Destroy. If not, it is up to you whether you respond by destroying the window.

(Note: GetForce is now superceded by CanVeto. So to test whether forced destruction of the window is required, test for the negative of CanVeto. If CanVeto returns FALSE, it is not possible to skip window deletion.)

If you don't destroy the window, you should call wxCloseEvent::Veto to let the calling code know that you did not destroy the window. This allows the wxWindow::Close function to return TRUE or FALSE depending on whether the close instruction was honoured or not.

Remarks

The wxWindow::OnClose virtual function remains for backward compatibility with earlier versions of wxWindows. The default OnCloseWindow handler for wxFrame and wxDialog will call OnClose, destroying the window if it returns TRUE or if the close is being forced.

See also

Window deletion overview, wxWindow::Close, wxWindow::OnClose, wxWindow::Destroy, wxCloseEvent, wxApp::OnQueryEndSession, wxApp::OnEndSession


wxWindow::OnDropFiles

void OnDropFiles(wxDropFilesEvent& event)

Called when files have been dragged from the file manager to the window.

Parameters

event

Remarks

The window must have previously been enabled for dropping by calling wxWindow::DragAcceptFiles.

This event is only generated under Windows.

To intercept this event, use the EVT_DROP_FILES macro in an event table definition.

See also

wxDropFilesEvent, wxWindow::DragAcceptFiles, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnEraseBackground

void OnEraseBackground(wxEraseEvent& event)

Called when the background of the window needs to be erased.

Parameters

event

Remarks

Under non-Windows platforms, this event is simulated (simply generated just before the paint event) and may cause flicker. It is therefore recommended that you set the text background colour explicitly in order to prevent flicker. The default background colour under GTK is grey.

To intercept this event, use the EVT_ERASE_BACKGROUND macro in an event table definition.

See also

wxEraseEvent, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnKeyDown

void OnKeyDown(wxKeyEvent& event)

Called when the user has pressed a key, before it is translated into an ASCII value using other modifier keys that might be pressed at the same time.

Parameters

event

Remarks

This member function is called in response to a key down event. To intercept this event, use the EVT_KEY_DOWN macro in an event table definition. Your OnKeyDown handler may call this default function to achieve default keypress functionality.

Note that not all keypresses can be intercepted this way. If you wish to intercept special keys, such as shift, control, and function keys, then you will need to use wxWindow::OnKeyDown or wxWindow::OnKeyUp.

Most, but not all, windows allow keypresses to be intercepted.

See also

wxWindow::OnChar, wxWindow::OnKeyUp, wxKeyEvent, wxWindow::OnCharHook, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnKeyUp

void OnKeyUp(wxKeyEvent& event)

Called when the user has released a key.

Parameters

event

Remarks

This member function is called in response to a key up event. To intercept this event, use the EVT_KEY_UP macro in an event table definition. Your OnKeyUp handler may call this default function to achieve default keypress functionality.

Note that not all keypresses can be intercepted this way. If you wish to intercept special keys, such as shift, control, and function keys, then you will need to use wxWindow::OnKeyDown or wxWindow::OnKeyUp.

Most, but not all, windows allow key up events to be intercepted.

See also

wxWindow::OnChar, wxWindow::OnKeyDown, wxKeyEvent, wxWindow::OnCharHook, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnKillFocus

void OnKillFocus(wxFocusEvent& event)

Called when a window's focus is being killed.

Parameters

event

Remarks

To intercept this event, use the macro EVT_KILL_FOCUS in an event table definition.

Most, but not all, windows respond to this event.

See also

wxFocusEvent, wxWindow::OnSetFocus, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnIdle

void OnIdle(wxIdleEvent& event)

Provide this member function for any processing which needs to be done when the application is idle.

See also

wxApp::OnIdle, wxIdleEvent


wxWindow::OnInitDialog

void OnInitDialog(wxInitDialogEvent& event)

Default handler for the wxEVT_INIT_DIALOG event. Calls wxWindow::TransferDataToWindow.

Parameters

event

Remarks

Gives the window the default behaviour of transferring data to child controls via the validator that each control has.

See also

wxValidator, wxWindow::TransferDataToWindow


wxWindow::OnMenuCommand

void OnMenuCommand(wxCommandEvent& event)

Called when a menu command is received from a menu bar.

Parameters

event

Remarks

A function with this name doesn't actually exist; you can choose any member function to receive menu command events, using the EVT_COMMAND macro for individual commands or EVT_COMMAND_RANGE for a range of commands.

See also

wxCommandEvent, wxWindow::OnMenuHighlight, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnMenuHighlight

void OnMenuHighlight(wxMenuEvent& event)

Called when a menu select is received from a menu bar: that is, the mouse cursor is over a menu item, but the left mouse button has not been pressed.

Parameters

event

Remarks

You can choose any member function to receive menu select events, using the EVT_MENU_HIGHLIGHT macro for individual menu items or EVT_MENU_HIGHLIGHT_ALL macro for all menu items.

The default implementation for wxFrame::OnMenuHighlight displays help text in the first field of the status bar.

This function was known as OnMenuSelect in earlier versions of wxWindows, but this was confusing since a selection is normally a left-click action.

See also

wxMenuEvent, wxWindow::OnMenuCommand, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnMouseEvent

void OnMouseEvent(wxMouseEvent& event)

Called when the user has initiated an event with the mouse.

Parameters

event

Remarks

Most, but not all, windows respond to this event.

To intercept this event, use the EVT_MOUSE_EVENTS macro in an event table definition, or individual mouse event macros such as EVT_LEFT_DOWN.

See also

wxMouseEvent, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnMove

void OnMove(wxMoveEvent& event)

Called when a window is moved.

Parameters

event

Remarks

Use the EVT_MOVE macro to intercept move events.

Remarks

Not currently implemented.

See also

wxMoveEvent, wxFrame::OnSize, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnPaint

void OnPaint(wxPaintEvent& event)

Sent to the event handler when the window must be refreshed.

Parameters

event

Remarks

Use the EVT_PAINT macro in an event table definition to intercept paint events.

Note that In a paint event handler, the application must always create a wxPaintDC object, even if you do not use it. Otherwise, under MS Windows, refreshing for this and other windows will go wrong.

For example:

  void MyWindow::OnPaint(wxPaintEvent\& event)
  {
      wxPaintDC dc(this);

      DrawMyDocument(dc);
  }
You can optimize painting by retrieving the rectangles that have been damaged and only repainting these. The rectangles are in terms of the client area, and are unscrolled, so you will need to do some calculations using the current view position to obtain logical, scrolled units.

Here is an example of using the wxRegionIterator class:

// Called when window needs to be repainted.
void MyWindow::OnPaint(wxPaintEvent\& event)
{
  wxPaintDC dc(this);

  // Find Out where the window is scrolled to
  int vbX,vbY;                     // Top left corner of client
  GetViewStart(&vbX,&vbY);

  int vX,vY,vW,vH;                 // Dimensions of client area in pixels
  wxRegionIterator upd(GetUpdateRegion()); // get the update rect list

  while (upd)
  {
    vX = upd.GetX();
    vY = upd.GetY();
    vW = upd.GetW();
    vH = upd.GetH();

    // Alternatively we can do this:
    // wxRect rect;
    // upd.GetRect(&rect);

    // Repaint this rectangle
    ...some code...

    upd ++ ;
  }
}
See also

wxPaintEvent, wxPaintDC, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnScroll

void OnScroll(wxScrollWinEvent& event)

Called when a scroll window event is received from one of the window's built-in scrollbars.

Parameters

event

Remarks

Note that it is not possible to distinguish between horizontal and vertical scrollbars until the function is executing (you can't have one function for vertical, another for horizontal events).

See also

wxScrollWinEvent, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnSetFocus

void OnSetFocus(wxFocusEvent& event)

Called when a window's focus is being set.

Parameters

event

Remarks

To intercept this event, use the macro EVT_SET_FOCUS in an event table definition.

Most, but not all, windows respond to this event.

See also

wxFocusEvent, wxWindow::OnKillFocus, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnSize

void OnSize(wxSizeEvent& event)

Called when the window has been resized.

Parameters

event

Remarks

You may wish to use this for frames to resize their child windows as appropriate.

Note that the size passed is of the whole window: call wxWindow::GetClientSize for the area which may be used by the application.

When a window is resized, usually only a small part of the window is damaged and you may only need to repaint that area. However, if your drawing depends on the size of the window, you may need to clear the DC explicitly and repaint the whole window. In which case, you may need to call wxWindow::Refresh to invalidate the entire window.

See also

wxSizeEvent, Event handling overview


wxWindow::OnSysColourChanged

void OnSysColourChanged(wxOnSysColourChangedEvent& event)

Called when the user has changed the system colours. Windows only.

Parameters

event

See also

wxSysColourChangedEvent, Event handling overview


wxWindow::PopEventHandler

wxEvtHandler* PopEventHandler(bool deleteHandler = FALSE) const

Removes and returns the top-most event handler on the event handler stack.

Parameters

deleteHandler

See also

wxWindow::SetEventHandler, wxWindow::GetEventHandler, wxWindow::PushEventHandler, wxEvtHandler::ProcessEvent, wxEvtHandler


wxWindow::PopupMenu

bool PopupMenu(wxMenu* menu, const wxPoint& pos)

bool PopupMenu(wxMenu* menu, int x, int y)

Pops up the given menu at the specified coordinates, relative to this window, and returns control when the user has dismissed the menu. If a menu item is selected, the corresponding menu event is generated and will be processed as usually.

Parameters

menu

pos

x

y

See also

wxMenu

Remarks

Just before the menu is popped up, wxMenu::UpdateUI is called to ensure that the menu items are in the correct state. The menu does not get deleted by the window.

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::PushEventHandler

void PushEventHandler(wxEvtHandler* handler)

Pushes this event handler onto the event stack for the window.

Parameters

handler

Remarks

An event handler is an object that is capable of processing the events sent to a window. By default, the window is its own event handler, but an application may wish to substitute another, for example to allow central implementation of event-handling for a variety of different window classes.

wxWindow::PushEventHandler allows an application to set up a chain of event handlers, where an event not handled by one event handler is handed to the next one in the chain. Use wxWindow::PopEventHandler to remove the event handler.

See also

wxWindow::SetEventHandler, wxWindow::GetEventHandler, wxWindow::PopEventHandler, wxEvtHandler::ProcessEvent, wxEvtHandler


wxWindow::Raise

void Raise()

Raises the window to the top of the window hierarchy if it is a managed window (dialog or frame).


wxWindow::Refresh

virtual void Refresh(bool eraseBackground = TRUE, const wxRect* rect = NULL)

Causes a message or event to be generated to repaint the window.

Parameters

eraseBackground

rect


wxWindow::ReleaseMouse

virtual void ReleaseMouse()

Releases mouse input captured with wxWindow::CaptureMouse.

See also

wxWindow::CaptureMouse


wxWindow::RemoveChild

virtual void RemoveChild(wxWindow* child)

Removes a child window. This is called automatically by window deletion functions so should not be required by the application programmer.

Parameters

child


wxWindow::Reparent

virtual bool Reparent(wxWindow* newParent)

Reparents the window, i.e the window will be removed from its current parent window (e.g. a non-standard toolbar in a wxFrame) and then re-inserted into another. Available on Windows and GTK.

Parameters

newParent


wxWindow::ScreenToClient

virtual void ScreenToClient(int* x, int* y) const

virtual wxPoint ScreenToClient(const wxPoint& pt) const

Converts from screen to client window coordinates.

Parameters

x

y

pt

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::ScrollWindow

virtual void ScrollWindow(int dx, int dy, const wxRect* rect = NULL)

Physically scrolls the pixels in the window and move child windows accordingly.

Parameters

dx

dy

rect

Remarks

Use this function to optimise your scrolling implementations, to minimise the area that must be redrawn. Note that it is rarely required to call this function from a user program.


wxWindow::SetAcceleratorTable

virtual void SetAcceleratorTable(const wxAcceleratorTable& accel)

Sets the accelerator table for this window. See wxAcceleratorTable.


wxWindow::SetAutoLayout

void SetAutoLayout(bool autoLayout)

Determines whether the wxWindow::Layout function will be called automatically when the window is resized. Use in connection with wxWindow::SetSizer and wxWindow::SetConstraints for laying out subwindows.

Parameters

autoLayout

See also

wxWindow::SetConstraints


wxWindow::SetBackgroundColour

virtual void SetBackgroundColour(const wxColour& colour)

Sets the background colour of the window.

Parameters

colour

Remarks

The background colour is usually painted by the default wxWindow::OnEraseBackground event handler function under Windows and automatically under GTK.

Note that setting the background colour does not cause an immediate refresh, so you may wish to call wxWindow::Clear or wxWindow::Refresh after calling this function.

Use this function with care under GTK as the new appearance of the window might not look equally well when used with "Themes", i.e GTK's ability to change its look as the user wishes with run-time loadable modules.

See also

wxWindow::GetBackgroundColour, wxWindow::SetForegroundColour, wxWindow::GetForegroundColour, wxWindow::Clear, wxWindow::Refresh, wxWindow::OnEraseBackground


wxWindow::SetCaret

void SetCaret(wxCaret *caret) const

Sets the caret associated with the window.


wxWindow::SetClientSize

virtual void SetClientSize(int width, int height)

virtual void SetClientSize(const wxSize& size)

This sets the size of the window client area in pixels. Using this function to size a window tends to be more device-independent than wxWindow::SetSize, since the application need not worry about what dimensions the border or title bar have when trying to fit the window around panel items, for example.

Parameters

width

height

size

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::SetCursor

virtual void SetCursor(const wxCursor&cursor)

Sets the window's cursor. Notice that the window cursor also sets it for the children of the window implicitly.

The cursor may be wxNullCursor in which case the window cursor will be reset back to default.

Parameters

cursor

See also

::wxSetCursor, wxCursor


wxWindow::SetConstraints

void SetConstraints(wxLayoutConstraints* constraints)

Sets the window to have the given layout constraints. The window will then own the object, and will take care of its deletion. If an existing layout constraints object is already owned by the window, it will be deleted.

Parameters

constraints

Remarks

You must call wxWindow::SetAutoLayout to tell a window to use the constraints automatically in OnSize; otherwise, you must override OnSize and call Layout() explicitly. When setting both a wxLayoutConstraints and a wxSizer, only the sizer will have effect.


wxWindow::SetDropTarget

void SetDropTarget(wxDropTarget* target)

Associates a drop target with this window.

If the window already has a drop target, it is deleted.

See also

wxWindow::GetDropTarget, Drag and drop overview


wxWindow::SetEventHandler

void SetEventHandler(wxEvtHandler* handler)

Sets the event handler for this window.

Parameters

handler

Remarks

An event handler is an object that is capable of processing the events sent to a window. By default, the window is its own event handler, but an application may wish to substitute another, for example to allow central implementation of event-handling for a variety of different window classes.

It is usually better to use wxWindow::PushEventHandler since this sets up a chain of event handlers, where an event not handled by one event handler is handed to the next one in the chain.

See also

wxWindow::GetEventHandler, wxWindow::PushEventHandler, wxWindow::PopEventHandler, wxEvtHandler::ProcessEvent, wxEvtHandler


wxWindow::SetExtraStyle

void SetExtraStyle(long exStyle)

Sets the extra style bits for the window. The currently defined extra style bits are:

wxWS_EX_VALIDATE_RECURSIVELY TransferDataTo/FromWindow() and Validate() methods will recursively descend into all children of the window if it has this style flag set.


wxWindow::SetFocus

virtual void SetFocus()

This sets the window to receive keyboard input.


wxWindow::SetFont

void SetFont(const wxFont& font)

Sets the font for this window.

Parameters

font

See also

wxWindow::GetFont


wxWindow::SetForegroundColour

virtual void SetForegroundColour(const wxColour& colour)

Sets the foreground colour of the window.

Parameters

colour

Remarks

The interpretation of foreground colour is open to interpretation according to the window class; it may be the text colour or other colour, or it may not be used at all.

Note that when using this functions under GTK, you will disable the so called "themes", i.e. the user chosen apperance of windows and controls, including the themes of their parent windows.

See also

wxWindow::GetForegroundColour, wxWindow::SetBackgroundColour, wxWindow::GetBackgroundColour


wxWindow::SetId

void SetId(int id)

Sets the identifier of the window.

Remarks

Each window has an integer identifier. If the application has not provided one, an identifier will be generated. Normally, the identifier should be provided on creation and should not be modified subsequently.

See also

wxWindow::GetId, Window identifiers


wxWindow::SetName

virtual void SetName(const wxString& name)

Sets the window's name.

Parameters

name

See also

wxWindow::GetName


wxWindow::SetPalette

virtual void SetPalette(wxPalette* palette)

Obsolete - use wxDC::SetPalette instead.


wxWindow::SetScrollbar

virtual void SetScrollbar(int orientation, int position, int thumbSize, int range, bool refresh = TRUE)

Sets the scrollbar properties of a built-in scrollbar.

Parameters

orientation

position

thumbSize

range

refresh

Remarks

Let's say you wish to display 50 lines of text, using the same font. The window is sized so that you can only see 16 lines at a time.

You would use:

  SetScrollbar(wxVERTICAL, 0, 16, 50);

Note that with the window at this size, the thumb position can never go above 50 minus 16, or 34.

You can determine how many lines are currently visible by dividing the current view size by the character height in pixels.

When defining your own scrollbar behaviour, you will always need to recalculate the scrollbar settings when the window size changes. You could therefore put your scrollbar calculations and SetScrollbar call into a function named AdjustScrollbars, which can be called initially and also from your wxWindow::OnSize event handler function.

See also

Scrolling overview, wxScrollBar, wxScrolledWindow


wxWindow::SetScrollPos

virtual void SetScrollPos(int orientation, int pos, bool refresh = TRUE)

Sets the position of one of the built-in scrollbars.

Parameters

orientation

pos

refresh

Remarks

This function does not directly affect the contents of the window: it is up to the application to take note of scrollbar attributes and redraw contents accordingly.

See also

wxWindow::SetScrollbar, wxWindow::GetScrollPos, wxWindow::GetScrollThumb, wxScrollBar, wxScrolledWindow


wxWindow::SetSize

virtual void SetSize(int x, int y, int width, int height, int sizeFlags = wxSIZE_AUTO)

virtual void SetSize(const wxRect& rect)

Sets the size and position of the window in pixels.

virtual void SetSize(int width, int height)

virtual void SetSize(const wxSize& size)

Sets the size of the window in pixels.

Parameters

x

y

width

height

size

rect

sizeFlags

Remarks

The second form is a convenience for calling the first form with default x and y parameters, and must be used with non-default width and height values.

The first form sets the position and optionally size, of the window. Parameters may be -1 to indicate either that a default should be supplied by wxWindows, or that the current value of the dimension should be used.

See also

wxWindow::Move

wxPython note: In place of a single overloaded method name, wxPython implements the following methods:


wxWindow::SetSizeHints

virtual void SetSizeHints(int minW=-1, int minH=-1, int maxW=-1, int maxH=-1, int incW=-1, int incH=-1)

Allows specification of minimum and maximum window sizes, and window size increments. If a pair of values is not set (or set to -1), the default values will be used.

Parameters

minW

minH

maxW

maxH

incW

incH

Remarks

If this function is called, the user will not be able to size the window outside the given bounds.

The resizing increments are only significant under Motif or Xt.


wxWindow::SetSizer

void SetSizer(wxSizer* sizer)

Sets the window to have the given layout sizer. The window will then own the object, and will take care of its deletion. If an existing layout constraints object is already owned by the window, it will be deleted.

Parameters

sizer

Remarks

You must call wxWindow::SetAutoLayout to tell a window to use the sizer automatically in OnSize; otherwise, you must override OnSize and call Layout() explicitly. When setting both a wxSizer and a wxLayoutConstraints, only the sizer will have effect.


wxWindow::SetTitle

virtual void SetTitle(const wxString& title)

Sets the window's title. Applicable only to frames and dialogs.

Parameters

title

See also

wxWindow::GetTitle


wxWindow::SetValidator

virtual void SetValidator(const wxValidator& validator)

Deletes the current validator (if any) and sets the window validator, having called wxValidator::Clone to create a new validator of this type.


wxWindow::SetToolTip

void SetToolTip(const wxString& tip)

void SetToolTip(wxToolTip* tip)

Attach a tooltip to the window.

See also: GetToolTip, wxToolTip


wxWindow::GetToolTip

wxToolTip* GetToolTip() const

Get the associated tooltip or NULL if none.


wxWindow::SetWindowStyle

void SetWindowStyle(long style)

Identical to SetWindowStyleFlag.


wxWindow::SetWindowStyleFlag

virtual void SetWindowStyleFlag(long style)

Sets the style of the window. Please note that some styles cannot be changed after the window creation and that Refresh() might be called after changing the others for the change to take place immediately.

See Window styles for more information about flags.

See also

GetWindowStyleFlag


wxWindow::Show

virtual bool Show(bool show)

Shows or hides the window.

Parameters

show

See also

wxWindow::IsShown


wxWindow::TransferDataFromWindow

virtual bool TransferDataFromWindow()

Transfers values from child controls to data areas specified by their validators. Returns FALSE if a transfer failed.

If the window has wxWS_EX_VALIDATE_RECURSIVELY extra style flag set, the method will also call TransferDataFromWindow() of all child windows.

See also

wxWindow::TransferDataToWindow, wxValidator, wxWindow::Validate


wxWindow::TransferDataToWindow

virtual bool TransferDataToWindow()

Transfers values to child controls from data areas specified by their validators.

If the window has wxWS_EX_VALIDATE_RECURSIVELY extra style flag set, the method will also call TransferDataToWindow() of all child windows.

Return value

Returns FALSE if a transfer failed.

See also

wxWindow::TransferDataFromWindow, wxValidator, wxWindow::Validate


wxWindow::Validate

virtual bool Validate()

Validates the current values of the child controls using their validators.

If the window has wxWS_EX_VALIDATE_RECURSIVELY extra style flag set, the method will also call Validate() of all child windows.

Return value

Returns FALSE if any of the validations failed.

See also

wxWindow::TransferDataFromWindow, wxWindow::TransferDataFromWindow, wxValidator


wxWindow::WarpPointer

void WarpPointer(int x, int y)

Moves the pointer to the given position on the window.

Parameters

x

y