RSAREF(TM): A Cryptographic Toolkit
Library Reference Manual
RSA Laboratories
March 21, 1994
Version 2.0
Copyright (C) 1991-4 RSA Laboratories, a division of RSA Data
Security, Inc. All rights reserved.
1. INTRODUCTION
This manual is a reference guide for users of RSAREF, RSA
Laboratories' portable, educational, reference implementation of
cryptography.
RSAREF supports the following algorithms:
o RSA encryption and key generation [1], as defined by RSA
Laboratories' Public-Key Cryptography Standards (PKCS) [2]
o MD2 and MD5 message digests [3,4]
o DES (Data Encryption Standard) in cipher-block chaining mode
[5,6]
o Diffie-Hellman key agreement [7], as defined by PKCS #3 [8]
o DESX, RSA Data Security's efficient, secure DES enhancement
o Triple-DES, for added security with three DES operations
RSAREF is written entirely in C. Its application interface includes
the following routines:
R_SignInit, computes a digital signature on data of
R_SignUpdate, arbitrary length, processing in parts
and R_SignFinal
R_VerifyInit, verifies a digital signature, processing in
R_VerifyUpdate, parts
and R_VerifyFinal
R_SealInit, creates a digital envelope on data of
R_SealUpdate, arbitrary length, processing in parts
and R_SealFinal
R_OpenInit, opens a digital envelope, processing in
R_OpenUpdate, parts
and R_OpenFinal
R_DigestInit, digests data of arbitrary length, processing
R_DigestUpdate, in parts
and R_DigestFinal
R_EncodePEMBlock encodes a message in printable ASCII
according to RFC 1421 [9]
R_DecodePEMBlock decodes a message encoded according to RFC
1421
R_GeneratePEMKeys generates an RSA public/private key pair
R_RandomInit initializes a random structure
R_RandomUpdate mixes bytes into a random structure
R_GetRandomBytesNeeded computes the number of mix-in bytes still
needed to seed a random structure
R_RandomFinal zeroizes a random structure
R_GenerateDHParams generates Diffie-Hellman parameters
R_SetupDHAgreement sets up a key agreement
R_ComputeDHAgreedKey computes the agreed-upon key
An Internet Privacy-Enhanced Mail [9-12] implementation can be built
directly on top of these routines, together with message parsing and
formatting routines and certificate-management routines.
Implementations of PKCS #7 and #10 [13,14] can be built in a similar
manner. Other secure applications can be built on top of the
Diffie-Hellman routines.
The following routines are supported for backward compatibility with
RSAREF 1.0:
R_SignPEMBlock computes a digital signature on a message
R_SignBlock computes a digital signature on a block of
data such as a certificate
R_VerifyPEMSignature verifies a digital signature on a message
R_VerifyBlockSignature verifies a digital signature on a block of
data such as a certificate
R_SealPEMBlock computes a digital signature and encrypts a
message
R_OpenPEMBlock decrypts an encrypted message and verifies a
digital signature
R_DigestBlock computes the message digest of a message
This manual is divided into eight sections and three appendices.
This section introduces RSAREF. The next six sections explain RSAREF
procedures: random structures; cryptographic enhancements; printable
ASCII encoding and decoding; key-pair generation; Diffie-Hellman key
agreement; and version 1.0 routines. The last section documents the
platform-specific run-time library.
Appendix A lists RSAREF error types. Appendix B lists RSAREF types
and constants. Appendix C lists platform-specific types and
constants.
2. RANDOM STRUCTURES
A random structure contains a seed from which a pseudorandom sequence
of bytes is derived. RSAREF generates keys and pads RSA encryption
blocks with bytes derived from a random structure.
Random structures are used by both message-processing and
key-generation applications.
RSAREF sets up a random structure with the procedure R_RandomInit. A
typical application calls R_RandomInit on entry.
A new random structure is not ready for use until it is seeded by
mixing in some random bytes. RSAREF seeds a random structure with the
procedure R_RandomUpdate and R_GetRandomBytesNeeded. A random
structure is considered seeded when the number of bytes still needed
reaches zero. More bytes can be mixed in after the random structure
is seeded. A typical application calls R_GetRandomBytesNeeded and
R_RandomUpdate immediately after calling R_RandomInit.
RSAREF zeroizes a random structure with the procedure R_RandomFinal.
A typical application calls R_RandomFinal on exit.
R_RandomInit
int R_RandomInit (
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct /* new random structure */
);
R_RandomInit sets up a new random structure.
Return value: 0 success
nonzero reserved for future compatibility
R_RandomUpdate
int R_RandomUpdate (
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct, /* random structure */
unsigned char *block, /* block of values to mix in */
unsigned int blockLen /* length of block */
);
R_RandomUpdate mixes blockLen bytes from block into randomStruct.
Return value: 0 success
nonzero reserved for future compatibility
R_GetRandomBytesNeeded
int R_GetRandomBytesNeeded (
unsigned int *bytesNeeded, /* number of mix-in bytes needed */
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct /* random structure */
);
R_GetRandomBytesNeeded computes the number of mix-in bytes still
needed to seed randomStruct, storing the result in bytesNeeded.
Return value: 0 success
nonzero reserved for future compatibility
R_RandomFinal
void R_RandomFinal (
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct /* random structure */
);
R_RandomFinal zeroizes randomStruct.
No return value.
3. CRYPTOGRAPHIC ENHANCEMENTS
RSAREF's cryptographic enhancements fall into five groups: signing
data; verifying signatures; sealing data in digital envelopes;
opening digital envelopes; and digesting data.
All the procedures process data in parts; it is not necessary for all
data to be stored in memory at once.
3.1 Signing data
RSAREF signs data with three procedures: R_SignInit, R_SignUpdate,
and R_SignFinal. These procedures are typically called by
message-processing applications, by key-generation applications when
constructing a PEM or PKCS certification request, and by
certification applications when signing a certificate.
An application first calls R_SignInit, giving an integer specifying
which message-digest algorithm to apply (see Appendix D). R_SignInit
sets up a context for the signature operation, and returns the
context.
The application then calls R_SignUpdate any number of times, giving
the context and the next data part. R_SignUpdate digests the part.
After all the parts are supplied, the application calls R_SignFinal,
giving the context and the signer's RSA private key. R_SignFinal
encrypts the message digest with the private key and returns the
result, which is the signature.
An application may call R_SignUpdate again after R_SignFinal to
sign other data, without setting up a new context.
R_SignInit
int R_SignInit (
R_SIGNATURE_CTX *context, /* new context */
int digestAlgorithm /* message-digest algorithm */
);
R_SignInit begins a signature operation, setting up a new context.
digestAlgorithm is the algorithm with which data are digested, and
must be one of the values listed in Appendix D.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
R_SignUpdate
int R_SignUpdate (
R_SIGNATURE_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *partIn, /* next data part */
unsigned char partInLen /* length of next data part */
);
R_SignUpdate continues a signature operation, digesting partIn, the
next data part, with the specified message-digest algorithm. It may
be called any number of times.
Return value: 0 success
R_SignFinal
int R_SignFinal (
R_SIGNATURE_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *signature, /* signature */
unsigned int *signatureLen, /* length of signature */
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY *privateKey /* signer's RSA private key */
);
R_SignFinal completes a signature operation, encrypting the message
digest with the signer's private key. It stores the resulting
signature in signature and its length in signatureLen.
signatureLen will not be greater than MAX_SIGNATURE_LEN.
Return value: 0 success
RE_PRIVATE_KEY privateKey cannot encrypt message digest
3.2 Verifying a signature
RSAREF verifies signatures with three procedures: R_VerifyInit,
R_VerifyUpdate, and R_VerifyFinal. These procedures are typically
called by message-processing applications and by certification
applications when processing a certification request.
An application first calls R_VerifyInit, giving an integer specifying
which message-digest algorithm to apply (see Appendix D).
R_VerifyInit sets up a context for the verification operation, and
returns the context.
The application then calls R_VerifyUpdate any number of times, giving
the context and the next data part. R_VerifyUpdate digests the part.
After all the parts are supplied, the application calls
R_VerifyFinal, giving the context, the signer's RSA public key, and
the signature. R_SignFinal decrypts the signature with the public key
and compares the result to the message digest to see whether the
signature is valid.
An application may call R_VerifyUpdate again after R_VerifyFinal to
verify other signatures, without setting up a new context.
R_VerifyInit
int R_VerifyInit (
R_SIGNATURE_CTX *context, /* new context */
int digestAlgorithm /* message-digest algorithm */
);
R_VerifyInit begins a verification operation, setting up a new
context.
digestAlgorithm is the algorithm with which data are digested, and
must be one of the values listed in Appendix D.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
R_VerifyUpdate
int R_VerifyUpdate (
R_SIGNATURE_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *partIn, /* next data part */
unsigned int partInLen /* length of next data part */
);
R_VerifyUpdate continues a verification operation, digesting partIn,
the next data part, with the specified message-digest algorithm. It
may be called any number of times.
Return value: 0 success
R_VerifyFinal
int R_VerifyFinal (
R_SIGNATURE_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *signature, /* signature */
unsigned int signatureLen, /* length of signature */
R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY *publicKey /* signer's RSA public key */
);
R_VerifyFinal completes a verification operation, decrypting the
signature with the signer's public key and comparing it to the
message digest.
signatureLen must not be greater than MAX_SIGNATURE_LEN.
Return value: 0 success
RE_LEN signatureLen out of range
RE_PUBLIC_KEY publicKey cannot decrypt signature
RE_SIGNATURE signature is incorrect
3.3 Sealing data in a digital envelope
RSAREF seals data in digital envelopes with three procedures:
R_SealInit, R_SealUpdate, and R_SealFinal. There may be any number of
recipients. These procedures are typically called by
message-processing applications.
An application first calls R_SealInit, giving an integer specifying
which data encryption algorithm to apply (see Appendix D), the public
key of each recipient, and a random structure. R_SealInit sets up a
context for the sealing operation, generates a data encryption key
and an initialization vector, and encrypts the data encryption key
with each recipient's public key. It returns the context, the
initialization vector, and the encrypted data encryption keys.
The application then calls R_SealUpdate any number of times, giving
the context and the next data part. R_SealUpdate encrypts the part
and returns the next encrypted data part. (Depending on how data are
supplied, it may return more or less data than are supplied.)
After all the parts are supplied, the application calls R_SealFinal,
giving the context. R_SealFinal returns the last encrypted data part.
An application may call R_SealUpdate again after R_SealFinal to
encrypt other data under the same data encryption key and
initialization vector. This is useful when message content is signed
and encrypted, and the digital signature must also be encrypted.
R_SealInit
int R_SealInit (
R_ENVELOPE_CTX *context, /* new context */
unsigned char **encryptedKeys, /* encrypted keys */
unsigned int *encryptedKeyLens, /* lengths of encrypted keys */
unsigned char iv[8], /* initialization vector */
unsigned int publicKeyCount, /* number of public keys */
R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY **publicKeys, /* public keys */
int encryptionAlgorithm, /* data encryption algorithm */
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct /* random structure */
);
R_SealInit begins a "sealing" operation. It performs the following
steps:
1. It sets up a new context.
2. It generates a random data encryption key and initialization
vector, storing the initialization vector in iv.
3. It encrypts the data encryption key with each recipient's
public key, storing the encrypted keys in encryptedKeys and
their lengths in encryptedKeyLens. (Note that each
encryptedKeys member should be a pointer, initialized by
the application.)
The encryptedKeyLens members will not be greater than
MAX_ENCRYPTED_KEY_LEN.
encryptionAlgorithm is the algorithm with which data are encrypted,
and must be one of the values listed in Appendix D.
randomStruct must have been seeded.
Return value: 0 success
RE_ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM encryptionAlgorithm is invalid
RE_PUBLIC_KEY publicKey cannot encrypt data encryption
key
RE_NEED_RANDOM randomStruct is not seeded
R_SealUpdate
int R_SealUpdate (
R_ENVELOPE_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *partOut, /* next encrypted data part */
unsigned int *partOutLen, /* length of next encrypted data part */
unsigned char *partIn, /* next data part */
unsigned int partInLen /* length of next data part */
);
R_SealUpdate continues a sealing operation, decrypting partIn, the
next data part, with the specified data encryption algorithm, and
returning partOut, the next encrypted data part. It may be called any
number of times.
partOutLen will always be a multiple of 8, and it will not be greater
than partInLen+7. If partInLen is a multiple of 8, then partOutLen
will be the same as partInLen.
(As a special case, if partInLen is a multiple of 24, then partOutLen
will be the same as partInLen; this is helpful when the output is to
be encoded in ASCII, since the length of each part input to
R_EncodePEMBlock should be a multiple of 3.)
Return value: 0 success
R_SealFinal
int R_SealFinal (
R_ENVELOPE_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *partOut, /* last encrypted data part */
unsigned int *partOutLen /* length of last encrypted data part */
);
R_SealFinal completes a sealing operation, returning partOut, the
last encrypted data part.
partOutLen will always be 8.
Return value: 0 success
3.4 Opening a digital envelope
RSAREF opens digital envelopes with three procedures: R_OpenInit,
R_OpenUpdate, and R_OpenFinal. These procedures are typically called
by message-processing applications.
An application first calls R_OpenInit, giving an integer specifying
which data encryption algorithm to apply (see Appendix D), an
initialization vector, the recipient's RSA private key, and an
encrypted data encryption key. R_OpenInit sets up a context for the
opening operation and decrypts the encrypted data encryption key with
the private key. It returns the context.
The application then calls R_OpenUpdate any number of times, giving
the context and the next encrypted data part. R_OpenUpdate decrypts
the encrypted part and returns the next recovered data part. (Depending
on how data are supplied, it may return more or less data than are
supplied.)
After all the parts are supplied, the application calls R_OpenFinal,
giving the context. R_OpenFinal returns the last recovered data part.
As described for the sealing operations, an application may call
R_OpenUpdate again after R_OpenFinal to decrypt other data under the
same data encryption key and initialization vector.
R_OpenInit
int R_OpenInit (
R_ENVELOPE_CTX *context, /* new context */
int encryptionAlgorithm, /* data encryption algorithm */
unsigned char *encryptedKey, /* encrypted data encryption key */
unsigned int encryptedKeyLen, /* length of encrypted key */
unsigned char iv[8], /* initialization vector */
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY *privateKey /* recipient's RSA private key */
);
R_OpenInit begins an "opening" operation, setting up a new context
and decrypting encryptedKey with privateKey.
iv is the initialization vector for the data encryption algorithm.
encryptionAlgorithm is the algorithm with which the data is
encrypted, and must be one of the values listed in Appendix D.
encryptedKeyLen must not be greater than MAX_ENCRYPTED_KEY_LEN.
Return value: 0 success
RE_LEN encryptedKeyLen out of range
RE_ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM encryptionAlgorithm is invalid
RE_PRIVATE_KEY privateKey cannot decrypt encrypted key
R_OpenUpdate
int R_OpenUpdate (
R_ENVELOPE_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *partOut, /* next recovered data part */
unsigned int *partOutLen, /* length of next recovered data part */
unsigned char *partIn, /* next encrypted data part */
unsigned int partInLen /* length of next encrypted data part */
);
R_OpenUpdate continues an opening operation, decrypting partIn, the
next encrypted data part, and returning partOut, the next recovered
data part. It may be called any number of times.
partOutLen will always be a multiple of 8, and it will not be greater
than partInLen+7.
Return value: 0 success
R_OpenFinal
int R_OpenFinal (
R_ENVELOPE_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *partOut, /* last recovered data part */
unsigned int *partOutLen /* length of last recovered data part */
);
R_SealFinal completes a sealing operation, returning partOut, the
last recovered data part.
partOutLen will not be greater than 7.
Return value: 0 success
RE_KEY recovered data encryption key cannot decrypt
encrypted data
3.5 Digesting a message
RSAREF digests messages with three procedures: R_DigestInit,
R_DigestUpdate, and R_DigestFinal. These procedures have no
particular PEM application, but may be useful in PKCS #7.
An application first calls R_DigestInit, giving an integer specifying
which message-digest algorithm to apply (see Appendix D).
R_DigestInit sets up a context for the digesting operation, and
returns the context.
The application then calls R_DigestUpdate any number of times, giving
the context and the next data part. R_DigestUpdate digests the part.
After all the parts are supplied, the application calls
R_DigestFinal, giving the context. R_DigestFinal returns the message
digest.
An application may call R_DigestUpdate again after R_DigestFinal to
digest other data, without setting up a new context.
R_DigestInit
int R_DigestInit (
R_DIGEST_CTX *context, /* new context */
int digestAlgorithm /* message-digest algorithm */
);
R_DigestInit begins a message-digest operation, setting up a new
context.
digestAlgorithm is the algorithm with which data are digested, and
must be one of the values listed in Appendix D.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
R_DigestUpdate
int R_DigestUpdate (
R_DIGEST_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *partIn, /* next data part */
unsigned int partInLen /* length of next data part */
);
R_DigestUpdate continues a message-digest operation, digesting the
next data part with the specified message-digest algorithm. It may be
called any number of times.
Return value: 0 success
R_DigestFinal
int R_DigestFinal (
R_DIGEST_CTX *context, /* context */
unsigned char *digest, /* message digest */
unsigned int *digestLen /* length of message digest */
);
R_DigestFinal completes a message-digest operation, storing the
message digest in digest and its length in bytes in digestLen.
digestLen will not be greater than MAX_DIGEST_LEN.
Return value: 0 success
4. ENCODING AND DECODING
RSAREF encodes and decodes blocks of data in printable ASCII
according to RFC 1421 with two procedures: R_EncodePEMBlock
and R_DecodePEMBlock. They are typically called by
message-processing applications to format and parse fields
of the encapsulated header of a privacy-enhanced message, as
well as the message content.
To encode a block in printable ASCII, an application calls
R_EncodePEMBlock, giving a pointer to the block and the block length.
R_EncodePEMBlock encodes the block in printable ASCII and returns the
encoded block.
To decode a block encoded in printable ASCII, an application calls
R_DecodePEMBlock, giving a pointer to the encoded block, and the
encoded block length. R_DecodePEMBlock decodes the encoded block and
returns the decoded block.
An application can process data in parts with these procedures,
provided that the length of each input part (except possibly the
last) is a multiple of the "quantum" size: three bytes for
encoding, four bytes for decoding.
R_EncodePEMBlock
int R_EncodePEMBlock (
unsigned char *encodedBlock, /* encoded block */
unsigned int *encodedBlockLen, /* length of encoded block */
unsigned char *block, /* block */
unsigned int blockLen /* length of block */
);
R_EncodePEMBlock encodes block in printable ASCII according to RFC
1421, storing the encoding in encodedBlock.
encodedBlock will be an ASCII string, encoded according to RFC 1421.
(It will not contain any line delimiters; the application must break
the string into lines.) encodedBlockLen will not be greater than
ENCODED_CONTENT_LEN(blockLen).
When processing data in parts, blockLen should be a multiple of 3,
except possibly for the last part.
Return value: 0 success
nonzero reserved for future compatibility
R_DecodePEMBlock
int R_DecodePEMBlock (block, blockLen, encodedBlock, encodedBlockLen)
unsigned char *block, /* block */
unsigned int *blockLen, /* length of block */
unsigned char *encodedBlock, /* encoded block */
unsigned int encodedBlockLen /* length of encoded block */
);
R_DecodePEMBlock decodes a block encoded according to RFC 1421. Its
operation is the reverse of R_EncodePEMBlock.
blockLen will not be greater than
DECODED_CONTENT_LEN(encodedBlockLen).
When processing data in parts, encodedBlockLen should be a multiple
of 4, except possibly for the last part.
Return value: 0 success
RE_ENCODING encodedBlock has RFC 1421 encoding error
5. KEY-PAIR GENERATION
RSAREF generates key pairs with the procedure R_GeneratePEMKeys.
R_GeneratePEMKeys is typically called by key generation applications.
To generate a new key pair, an application calls R_GeneratePEMKeys,
giving the length in bits of the modulus, the choice of public
exponent (3 or 65537), and a random structure. R_GeneratePEMKeys
generates an RSA key pair and returns the public and private keys.
R_GeneratePEMKeys
int R_GeneratePEMKeys (
R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY *publicKey, /* new RSA public key */
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY *privateKey, /* new RSA private key */
R_RSA_PROTO_KEY *protoKey, /* RSA prototype key */
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct /* random structure */
);
R_GeneratePEMKeys generates a random RSA key pair, storing the
resulting RSA public key in publicKey and the resulting RSA private
key in privateKey.
Other parameters are as follows:
protoKey The RSA prototype key specifying the length
in bits of the RSA modulus and the public
exponent. (See Appendix B.)
randomStruct Random structure from which the key pair is
derived. It must have been seeded.
Return value: 0 success
RE_MODULUS_LEN modulus length invalid
RE_NEED_RANDOM randomStruct is not seeded
6. DIFFIE-HELLMAN KEY AGREEMENT
To generate new Diffie-Hellman parameters, an application calls
R_GenerateDHParams, giving the length in bits of the Diffie-Hellman
prime and a random structure. R_GenerateDHParams generates the
parameters. Several users may share given Diffie-Hellman parameters,
or they may be unique to a given user.
To set up a key agreement, communicating applications call
R_SetupDHAgreement, giving these parameters:
- the Diffie-Hellman parameters
- a random structure
R_SetupDHAgreement generates a new "public value" and a new "private
value" for each party. The applications then exchange their public
values.
To compute the agreed-upon key, the applications call
R_ComputeDHAgreedKey, giving these parameters:
- the Diffie-Hellman parameters
- the other party's public value
- the private value
R_ComputeDHAgreedKey computes the agreed-upon key.
The applications may encrypt subsequent data with the agreed-upon
key. When the length of the Diffie-Hellman prime is large enough, it
is considered impractical for someone who sees the Diffie-Hellman
parameters and the exchanged public values to determine to
agreed-upon key, so the subsequent encryption is secure.
R_GenerateDHParams
int R_GenerateDHParams (
R_DH_PARAMS *params, /* new Diffie-Hellman parameters */
unsigned int primeBits, /* length in bits of prime */
unsigned int subPrimeBits, /* length in bits of subprime */
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct /* random structure */
);
R_GenerateDHParams generates random Diffie-Hellman parameters,
storing the result in params. primeBits specifies the length in bits
of the Diffie-Hellman prime p, and subPrimeBits specifies the length
in bits of the prime q that divides p-1. The resulting generator g
has order q.
The resulting params->primeLen and params->generatorLen will be at
most DH_PRIME_LEN (bits); params->prime and params->generator should
point to arrays at least that long.
randomStruct must have been seeded.
Return value: 0 success
RE_MODULUS_LEN prime length invalid
RE_NEED_RANDOM randomStruct is not seeded
R_SetupDHAgreement
int R_SetupDHAgreement (
unsigned char *publicValue, /* new public value */
unsigned char *privateValue, /* new private value */
unsigned int privateValueLen, /* length of private value */
R_DH_PARAMS *params, /* Diffie-Hellman parameters */
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct /* random structure */
);
R_SetupDHAgreement sets up a Diffie-Hellman key agreement by
generating a public value and a private value from the Diffie-Hellman
parameters. It stores the resulting public value in publicValue and
the resulting private value in private value.
The private value is a random number x whose length in bytes is
privateValueLen, and the public value is the number y such that
y = g^x mod p,
where p and g are the prime and generator in params. (Typically, one
selects privateValueLen according to the length in bits of the
"subprime" q.)
publicValue and privateValue will be represented most significant
byte first, with no leading zero bytes. publicValue will have the
same length as the prime.
randomStruct must have been seeded.
Return value: 0 success
RE_NEED_RANDOM randomStruct is not seeded
R_ComputeDHAgreedKey
int R_ComputeDHAgreedKey (
unsigned char *agreedKey, /* new agreed-upon key */
unsigned char *otherPublicValue, /* other's public value */
unsigned char *privateValue, /* private value */
unsigned int privateValueLen, /* length of private value */
R_DH_PARAMS *params /* Diffie-Hellman parameters */
);
R_ComputeDHAgreedKey computes an agreed-upon key from the other
party's public value, a private value, and the Diffie-Hellman
parameters. It stores the resulting agreed key in agreedKey.
The agreed key is the number z such that
z = (y')^x mod p,
where y' is the other party's public value, x is the private value,
and p is the prime in params.
The other party's private value y' should be between 0 and p-1.
agreedKey will be represented most significant byte first, with no
leading zero bytes. agreedKey will have the same length as the prime.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DATA other party's private value out of range
7. VERSION 1.0 ROUTINES
The following procedures are retained for backward compatibility with
RSAREF 1.0: R_SignPEMBlock, R_SignBlock, R_VerifyPEMSignature,
R_VerifyBlockSignature, R_SealPEMBlock, R_OpenPEMBlock, and
R_DigestBlock.
The procedures are typically called by message-processing
applications. R_SignBlock is also typically called by key-generation
applications when constructing a PEM or PKCS certification request,
and by certification applications when signing a certificate.
R_DigestBlock has no particular PEM application, but may be useful in
PKCS #7.
To sign a message, an application calls R_SignPEMBlock, giving these
arguments:
- a pointer to the message content, and the message length
- an integer identifying which message-digest algorithm to apply
(see Appendix D)
- a flag indicating whether to encode the message in printable
ASCII according to RFC 1421
- the signer's RSA private key
R_SignPEMBlock signs the message with the signer's private key and
the specified message-digest algorithm, and optionally encodes the
message in printable ASCII. It returns the signature and possibly the
encoded message. The signature is encoded according to RFC 1421.
To sign a block of data such as a certificate where the signature is
not encoded in printable ASCII, an application calls R_SignBlock,
giving these arguments:
- a pointer to the block, and the block length
- an integer identifying which message-digest algorithm to apply
(see Appendix D)
- the signer's RSA private key
R_SignBlock signs the message with the signer's private key and the
specified message-digest algorithm. It returns the signature.
To verify a signature on a message, an application calls
R_VerifyPEMSignature, giving these arguments:
- a pointer to the (possibly encoded) message, and the message
length
- a pointer to the signature, and the signature length
- an integer identifying which message-digest algorithm was applied
(see Appendix D)
- a flag indicating whether the message was encoded in printable
ASCII
- the signer's RSA public key
R_VerifyPEMSignature decodes the message if it was encoded and
verifies the signature on the message with the signer's public key
and the specified message-digest algorithm. It returns the message
content if the message was encoded.
To verify a signature on a block of data such as a certificate where
the signature is not encoded in printable ASCII, an application calls
R_VerifyBlockSignature, giving these arguments:
- a pointer to the block, and the block length
- a pointer to the signature, and the signature length
- an integer identifying which message-digest algorithm was applied
(see Appendix D)
- the signer's RSA public key
R_VerifyBlockSignature verifies the signature on the message with the
signer's public key and the specified message-digest algorithm.
To sign and encrypt a message, an application calls R_SealPEMBlock,
giving these arguments:
- a pointer to the message content, and the message length
- an integer identifying which message-digest algorithm to apply
(see Appendix D)
- the signer's RSA private key
- the recipient's RSA public key
- a random structure
R_SealPEMBlock signs the message with the signer's private key and
the specified message-digest algorithm, encrypts the message and the
signature with a random DES key, and encrypts the DES key with the
recipient's public key. It returns the encrypted message, the
encrypted key, the encrypted signature, and the DES initialization
vector. The encrypted message, key, and signature are encoded
according to RFC 1421.
To open a message (decrypt it and verify its signature), an
application calls R_OpenPEMBlock, giving these arguments:
- a pointer to the encrypted message, and the encrypted message
length
- a pointer to the encrypted key, and the encrypted key length
- a pointer to the encrypted signature, and the encrypted signature
length
- a DES initialization vector
- an integer identifying which message-digest algorithm was applied
(see Appendix D)
- the signer's RSA public key
- the recipient's RSA private key
R_OpenPEMBlock decrypts the encrypted DES key with the recipient's
private key, decrypts the encrypted message and the encrypted
signature with the DES key, and verifies the signature on the message
with the signer's public key and the specified message-digest
algorithm. It returns the message content.
To digest a block of data such as a prototype certificate, an
application calls R_DigestBlock, giving these arguments:
- a pointer to the block, and the block length
- an integer identifying which message-digest algorithm to apply
(see Appendix D)
R_DigestBlock digests the block with the specified message-digest
algorithm. It returns the message digest.
ENCODED_CONTENT_LEN, DECODED_CONTENT_LEN, ENCRYPTED_CONTENT_LEN, and
DECRYPTED_CONTENT_LEN are macros that assist in determining the
maximum lengths of the results of cryptographic enhancements.
R_SignPEMBlock
int R_SignPEMBlock (
unsigned char *encodedContent, /* encoded content */
unsigned int *encodedContentLen, /* length of encoded content */
unsigned char *encodedSignature, /* encoded signature */
unsigned int *encodedSignatureLen, /* length of encoded signature */
unsigned char *content, /* content */
unsigned int contentLen, /* length of content */
int recode, /* recoding flag */
int digestAlgorithm, /* message-digest algorithm */
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY *privateKey /* signer's RSA private key */
);
R_SignPEMBlock computes a digital signature on content. Specifically,
R_SignPEMBlock performs the following steps:
1. It digests content with digestAlgorithm, giving a message
digest.
2. It encrypts the message digest with privateKey, giving a
digital signature, and encodes the result in printable
ASCII according to RFC 1421, storing the encoding in
encodedSignature.
3. If recode is nonzero, it encodes content in printable ASCII,
storing the encoding in encodedContent.
If recode is nonzero, encodedContent will be an ASCII string, encoded
according to RFC 1421. (It will not contain any line delimiters; the
application must break the string into 64-character lines.)
encodedContentLen will not be greater than
ENCODED_CONTENT_LEN(contentLen). If recode is zero, encodedContent is
ignored.
encodedSignature will be an ASCII string, encoded according to RFC
1421. encodedSignatureLen will not be greater than
MAX_PEM_SIGNATURE_LEN.
digestAlgorithm is the algorithm with which the message content is
digested, and must be one of the values listed in Appendix D.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
RE_PRIVATE_KEY privateKey cannot encrypt message digest
R_SignBlock
int R_SignBlock (
unsigned char *signature, /* encoded signature */
unsigned int *signatureLen, /* length of encoded signature */
unsigned char *block, /* block */
unsigned int blockLen, /* length of block */
int digestAlgorithm, /* message-digest algorithm */
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY *privateKey /* signer's RSA private key */
);
R_SignBlock computes a digital signature on block of data such as a
certificate. Its operation is similar to R_SignPEMBlock, except that
the resulting signature is an arbitrary byte string, rather than an
RFC 1421-encoded string.
signatureLen will not be greater than MAX_SIGNATURE_LEN.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
RE_PRIVATE_KEY privateKey cannot encrypt message digest
R_VerifyPEMSignature
int R_VerifyPEMSignature (
unsigned char *content, /* content */
unsigned int *contentLen, /* length of content */
unsigned char *encodedContent, /* (possibly) encoded content */
unsigned int encodedContentLen, /* length of encoded content */
unsigned char *encodedSignature, /* encoded signature */
unsigned int encodedSignatureLen, /* length of encoded signature */
int recode, /* recoding flag */
int digestAlgorithm, /* message-digest algorithm */
R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY *publicKey /* signer's RSA public key */
);
R_VerifyPEMSignature verifies a digital signature on a message. Its
operation is the inverse of R_SignPEMBlock. R_VerifyPEMSignature
operates on encodedSignature and encodedContent. If recode is
nonzero, it first decodes encodedContent according to RFC 1421, and
stores the result in content. If recode is zero, content is ignored.
If recode is nonzero, contentLen will not be greater than
DECODED_CONTENT_LEN(encodedContentLen).
Return value: 0 success
RE_CONTENT_ENCODING encodedContent has RFC 1421 encoding error
RE_SIGNATURE_ENCODING encodedSignature has RFC 1421 encoding error
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
RE_PUBLIC_KEY publicKey cannot decrypt signature
RE_SIGNATURE signature on content is incorrect
R_VerifyBlockSignature
int R_VerifyBlockSignature (
unsigned char *block, /* block */
unsigned int blockLen, /* length of block */
unsigned char *signature, /* signature */
unsigned int signatureLen, /* length of signature */
int digestAlgorithm, /* message-digest algorithm */
R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY *publicKey /* signer's RSA public key */
);
R_VerifyBlockSignature verifies a digital signature on a block of
data such as a certificate. Its operation is similar to
R_VerifyPEMSignature, except that the block and signature are
arbitrary byte strings, rather than RFC 1421-encoded strings.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
RE_PUBLIC_KEY publicKey cannot decrypt signature
RE_SIGNATURE signature on block is incorrect
R_SealPEMBlock
int R_SealPEMBlock (
unsigned char *encryptedContent, /* encoded, encrypted content */
unsigned int *encryptedContentLen,
/* length of encoded, encrypted content */
unsigned char *encryptedKey, /* encoded, encrypted DES key */
unsigned int *encryptedKeyLen,
/* length of encoded, encrypted DES key */
unsigned char *encryptedSignature,/* encoded, encrypted signature */
unsigned int *encryptedSignatureLen,
/* length of encoded, encrypted signature */
unsigned char iv[8], /* DES initialization vector */
unsigned char *content, /* content */
unsigned int contentLen, /* length of content */
int digestAlgorithm, /* message-digest algorithm */
R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY *publicKey, /* recipient's RSA public key */
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY *privateKey, /* signer's RSA private key */
R_RANDOM_STRUCT *randomStruct /* random structure */
);
R_SealPEMBlock computes a digital signature on content then encrypts
the content and the signature. Specifically, R_SealPEMBlock performs
the following steps:
1. It digests content with digestAlgorithm, giving a message
digest.
2. It encrypts the message digest with privateKey, giving a
digital signature.
3. It generates a random DES key and initialization vector,
storing the initialization vector in iv.
4. It encrypts content with the DES key and initialization vector
in cipher-block chaining mode, and encodes the result in
printable ASCII according to RFC 1421, storing the encoding
in encryptedContent.
5. It encrypts the DES key with publicKey and encodes the
result in printable ASCII, storing the encoding in
encryptedKey.
6. It encrypts the digital signature with the DES key and
initialization vector, and encodes the result in printable
ASCII, storing the encoding in encryptedSignature.
encryptedContent will be an ASCII string, encoded according to RFC
1421. (It will not contain any line delimiters; the application must
break the string into 64-character lines.) encryptedContentLen will
not be greater than ENCRYPTED_CONTENT_LEN(contentLen).
encryptedKey and encryptedSignature will be ASCII strings, encoded
according to RFC 1421. encryptedKeyLen will not be greater than
MAX_PEM_ENCRYPTED_KEY_LEN. encryptedSignatureLen will not be greater
than MAX_PEM_ENCRYPTED_SIGNATURE_LEN.
digestAlgorithm is the algorithm with which the message content is
digested, and must be one of the values listed in Appendix D.
randomStruct must have been seeded.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
RE_PRIVATE_KEY privateKey cannot encrypt message digest
RE_PUBLIC_KEY publicKey cannot encrypt DES key
RE_NEED_RANDOM randomStruct is not seeded
R_OpenPEMBlock
int R_OpenPEMBlock (
unsigned char *content, /* content */
unsigned int *contentLen, /* length of content */
unsigned char *encryptedContent, /* encoded, encrypted content */
unsigned int encryptedContentLen,
/* length of encoded, encrypted content */
unsigned char *encryptedKey, /* encoded, encrypted DES key */
unsigned int encryptedKeyLen,
/* length of encoded, encrypted DES key */
unsigned char *encryptedSignature,/* encoded, encrypted signature */
unsigned int encryptedSignatureLen,
/* length of encoded, encrypted signature */
unsigned char iv[8], /* DES initialization vector */
int digestAlgorithm, /* message-digest algorithm */
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY *privateKey, /* recipient's RSA private key */
R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY *publicKey /* signer's RSA public key */
);
R_OpenPEMBlock decrypts an encrypted message and verifies a digital
signature. Its operation is the inverse of R_SealPEMBlock.
contentLen will not be greater than
DECRYPTED_CONTENT_LEN(encryptedContentLen).
Return value: 0 success
RE_CONTENT_ENCODING encryptedContent has RFC 1421 encoding error
RE_KEY_ENCODING encryptedKey has RFC 1421 encoding error
RE_SIGNATURE_ENCODING encryptedSignature has RFC 1421 encoding
error
RE_PUBLIC_KEY publicKey cannot decrypt signature
RE_PRIVATE_KEY privateKey cannot decrypt encrypted key
RE_KEY recovered DES key cannot decrypt encrypted
content or encrypted signature
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
RE_SIGNATURE signature on content is incorrect
R_DigestBlock
int R_DigestBlock (
unsigned char *digest, /* message digest */
unsigned int *digestLen, /* length of message digest */
unsigned char *content, /* content */
unsigned int contentLen, /* length of content */
int digestAlgorithm /* message-digest algorithm */
);
R_DigestBlock computes the message digest of content, storing the
resulting message digest in digest and its length in bytes in
digestLen.
digestAlgorithm is the algorithm with which the content is digested,
and must be one of the values in Appendix D.
digestLen will not be greater than MAX_DIGEST_LEN.
Return value: 0 success
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM digestAlgorithm is invalid
8. RUN-TIME LIBRARY
RSAREF operates on memory blocks with three platform-specific library
procedures that are modeled after conventional C library functions:
R_memcmp compares two blocks of memory
R_memcpy copies a block of memory
R_memset sets a block of memory to a given value
These procedures can be found in the file 'r_stdlib.c'.
R_memcmp
int R_memcmp (
POINTER firstBlock, /* first block */
POINTER secondBlock, /* second block */
unsigned int len /* length of blocks */
);
R_memcmp compares the first len bytes of firstBlock and secondBlock.
The value of len can be zero, in which case firstBlock and secondBlock
are undefined and R_memcmp returns 0. R_memcmp compares the blocks by
scanning the blocks from lowest address to highest until a difference
is found. The smaller-valued block is the one with the smaller-valued
byte at the point of difference. If no difference is found, the
blocks are equal.
Return value: < 0 firstBlock is smaller
0 blocks are equal
> 0 firstBlock is larger
R_memcpy
void R_memcpy (
POINTER output, /* output block */
POINTER input, /* input block */
unsigned int len /* length of blocks */
);
R_memcpy copies the first len bytes of input to output. The value of
len can be zero, in which output and input are undefined. The blocks
do not overlap.
No return value.
R_memset
void R_memset (
POINTER output, /* output block */
int value, /* value */
unsigned int len /* length of block */
);
R_memset sets the first len bytes of output to value. The value of
len is zero, in which case output is undefined.
No return value.
APPENDIX A: RSAREF ERROR TYPES
This appendix lists RSAREF's error types.
RE_DATA other party's private value out of range
RE_CONTENT_ENCODING content, encrypted content, or encoded block
has RFC 1421 encoding error
RE_DIGEST_ALGORITHM message-digest algorithm is invalid
RE_ENCODING encoded block has RFC 1421 encoding error
RE_ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHM encryption algorithm is invalid
RE_KEY recovered DES key cannot decrypt encrypted
content or encrypted signature
RE_KEY_ENCODING encrypted key has RFC 1421 encoding error
RE_LEN encrypted key length or signature length
out of range
RE_MODULUS_LEN modulus length out of range
RE_NEED_RANDOM random structure is not seeded
RE_PRIVATE_KEY private key cannot encrypt message digest,
or cannot decrypt encrypted key
RE_PUBLIC_KEY public key cannot encrypt data encryption
key, or cannot decrypt signature
RE_SIGNATURE signature on content or block is incorrect
RE_SIGNATURE_ENCODING signature or encrypted signature has RFC 1421
encoding error
APPENDIX B: RSAREF TYPES
This appendix lists four RSAREF types: R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY,
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY, R_RSA_PROTO_KEY, and R_DH_PARAMS.
R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY
typedef struct {
unsigned int bits; /* length in bits of modulus */
unsigned char modulus[MAX_RSA_MODULUS_LEN]; /* modulus */
unsigned char exponent[MAX_RSA_MODULUS_LEN]; /* public exponent */
} R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY;
An R_RSA_PUBLIC_KEY value is a structure specifying an RSA public key.
There are three fields:
bits length in bits of the modulus (not less than
MIN_RSA_MODULUS_BITS and not greater than
MAX_RSA_MODULUS_BITS)
modulus modulus n, represented as a
MAX_RSA_MODULUS_LEN-byte number, most
significant byte first, as many leading zero
bytes as necessary
exponent public exponent e, represented like modulus
R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY
typedef struct {
unsigned int bits; /* length in bits of modulus */
unsigned char modulus[MAX_RSA_MODULUS_LEN]; /* modulus */
unsigned char publicExponent[MAX_RSA_MODULUS_LEN];
/* public exponent */
unsigned char exponent[MAX_RSA_MODULUS_LEN]; /* private exponent */
unsigned char prime[2][MAX_RSA_PRIME_LEN]; /* prime factors */
unsigned char primeExponent[2][MAX_RSA_PRIME_LEN];
/* exponents for CRT */
unsigned char coefficient[MAX_RSA_PRIME_LEN]; /* CRT coefficient */
} R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY;
An R_RSA_PRIVATE_KEY value is a structure specifying an RSA private
key. There are seven fields:
bits length in bits of the modulus (not less than
MIN_RSA_MODULUS_BITS and not greater than
MAX_RSA_MODULUS_BITS)
modulus modulus n, represented as a
MAX_RSA_MODULUS_LEN-byte number, most
significant byte first, as many leading zero
bytes as necessary
publicExponent public exponent e, represented like modulus
exponent private exponent d, represented like modulus
prime prime factors p and q of modulus, each
represented as MAX_RSA_PRIME_LEN-byte
numbers, most significant byte first, as
many leading zero bytes as necessary, where
p > q
primeExponents exponents (d mod p-1) and (d mod q-1) for
Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) operations,
each represented like prime factors
coefficient coefficient (q^{-1} mod p) for Chinese
remainder theorem operations, represented
like prime factors
R_RSA_PROTO_KEY
typedef struct {
unsigned int bits; /* length in bits of modulus */
int useFermat4; /* public exponent (1 = F4, 0 = 3) */
} R_RSA_PROTO_KEY;
An R_RSA_PROTO_KEY value is a structure specifying the length in bits
of the RSA modulus and the public exponent for key-pair generation.
There are two fields:
bits length in bits of the modulus (not less than
MIN_RSA_MODULUS_BITS and not greater than
MAX_RSA_MODULUS_BITS)
useFermat4 a flag specifying the public exponent. If
nonzero, it specifies F4 (65537); if 0, F0
(3)
R_DH_PARAMS
typedef struct {
unsigned char *prime; /* prime */
unsigned int primeLen; /* length of prime */
unsigned char *generator; /* generator */
unsigned int generatorLen; /* length of generator */
} R_DH_PARAMS;
An R_DH_PARAMS value is a structure specifying Diffie-Hellman
parameters. There are four fields:
prime prime p, represented as a primeLen-byte
number, most significant byte first, as
many leading zero bytes as necessary
primeLen length in bytes of the prime
generator generator g, represented like prime
generatorLen length in bytes of the generator
APPENDIX C: PLATFORM-SPECIFIC TYPES AND CONSTANTS
This appendix lists three platform-specific types and one #define'd
constant.
TYPES
RSAREF requires three platform-specific types: POINTER, UINT2, and
UINT4. These are defined in the file 'global.h'.
POINTER
A POINTER value is a generic pointer to memory to which any other
pointer can be cast.
Example:
typedef unsigned char *POINTER;
UINT2
A UINT2 value is a 16-bit unsigned integer.
Example:
typedef unsigned short int UINT2;
UINT4
A UINT4 value is a 32-bit unsigned integer.
Example:
typedef unsigned long int UINT4;
#DEFINE'D CONSTANTS
RSAREF requires one #define'd constant: PROTOTYPES. This is defined
in the 'makefile' on the C compiler command line.
PROTOTYPES indicates the form that C function declarations are to
take. If PROTOTYPES is nonzero, declarations take the form
type function (type, ..., type);
Otherwise declarations take the form
type function ();
APPENDIX D: ENCRYPTION ALGORITHMS AND IDENTIFIERS
This appendix lists message-digest and data encryption algorithms and
their identifiers.
D.1 Message-digest algorithms
RSAREF supports two message-digest algorithms, listed here with their
integer identifiers:
DA_MD2 MD2 message-digest algorithm [3]
DA_MD5 MD5 message-digest algorithm [4]
D.2 Data encryption algorithms
RSAREF supports four data encryption algorithms, listed here with
their integer identifiers:
EA_DES_CBC Data Encryption Standard [5] in cipher-block
chaining (CBC) mode [6]
EA_DESX_CBC RSA Data Security's DESX enhancement of DES,
in CBC mode (this algorithm exclusive-ors
with the previous ciphertext block,
exclusive-ors with a secret value, encrypts
with DES, then exclusive-ors with a second
secret value)
EA_DES_EDE3_CBC Three-key triple-DES in CBC mode (this
algorithm exclusive-ORs with the previous
ciphertext block, encrypts with one DES
key, decrypts with a second DES key, then
encrypts with a third DES key)
EA_DES_EDE2_CBC Two-key triple-DES in CBC mode (like three-
key, except that the first and third DES
keys are the same)
All four algorithms have a block size of eight bytes, and hence an
eight-byte initialization vector. All employ the padding rules
described in RFC 1423 [11].
REFERENCES
[1] R.L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman. A method for obtaining
digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems. Communications
of the ACM, 21(2):120-126, February 1978.
[2] RSA Laboratories. PKCS #1: RSA Encryption Standard. Version 1.5,
November 1993. (PKCS documents are available via electronic mail
to .)
[3] B. Kaliski. RFC 1319: The MD2 Message-Digest Algorithm. April
1992.
[4] R. Rivest. RFC 1321: The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm. April
1992.
[5] National Bureau of Standards. FIPS Publication 46-1: Data
Encryption Standard. January 1988.
[6] National Bureau of Standards. FIPS Publication 81: DES Modes of
Operation. December 1980.
[7] W. Diffie and M.E. Hellman. New directions in cryptography. IEEE
Transactions on Information Theory, IT-22:644-654, 1976.
[8] RSA Laboratories. PKCS #3: Diffie-Hellman Key-Agreement Standard.
Version 1.4, November 1993.
[9] J. Linn. RFC 1421: Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part I: Message Encryption and Authentication Procedures.
February 1993.
[10] S. Kent. RFC 1422: Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part II: Certificate-Based Key Management. February 1993.
[11] D. Balenson. RFC 1423: Privacy Enhancement for Internet
Electronic Mail: Part III: Algorithms, Modes, and Identifiers.
February 1993.
[12] B. Kaliski. RFC 1424: Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic
Mail: Part IV: Key Certification and Related Services. February
1993.
[13] RSA Laboratories. PKCS #7: Cryptographic Message Syntax Standard.
Version 1.5, November 1993.
[14] RSA Laboratories. PKCS #10: Certification Request Syntax
Standard. Version 1.0, November 1993.